Coffee History in Indonesia

Coffee plants spread to Indonesia, particularly in Java occurs in year 1700. Initially, the Dutch brought Coffee Arabica plant species to Botanic Garden Amsterdam, the Netherlands. When the Dutch colonial period in Indonesia, coffee cultivation experiments types of Arabica done in Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi. The first experiment carried region coffee hut, Jakarta. After growing well there, the coffee was applied in West Java (Bogor, Sukabumi, Banten and East Priangan with Cultuurstelsel (Cultivation System). After spreading to the island of Java, coffee plants spread to several provinces in Sumatra and Sulawesi.

After a while, embossed leaf rust disease (coffee leaf rust) that are found in Sri Lanka in 1869. Leaf rust disease that attacks the Arabica species is caused by the fungus Hemileia Vastarix. Therefore, the Dutch government bring a new kind of coffee, namely Liberika. However, after planted and harvested, productivity types Liberika actually too low. Furthermore, the Dutch government brought Robusta Coffee species derived from the Congo, Africa in the 1900s. This types of coffee is more resistant to leaf rust disease and have better productivity than Liberika Coffee. In the 1920s, the government established the Coffee Plant Research Center on the island of Java whose tasked is to develop and examine the types of Arabica and Robusta Coffee. Along with time and development technology, Robusta and Arabica native who has undergone crossing among varities and produce some hybrids or clones.


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